February 24, 2014 Day 35 of the Sixth Year - History

February 24, 2014 Day 35 of the Sixth Year - History

First Lady Michelle Obama greets students from Orchard Gardens in Boston, Mass. after the students performed at a luncheon for National Governors Association spouses, in the Map Room of the White House, Feb. 24, 2014

2014–15 Premier League

The 2014–15 Premier League (known as the Barclays Premier League for sponsorship reasons) was the 23rd season of the Premier League, the top English professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1992. The fixtures were announced on 18 June 2014. [5] The season started on 16 August 2014 and concluded on 24 May 2015. [6]

Manchester City came into the season as defending champions of the 2013–14 season. Leicester City, Burnley and Queens Park Rangers entered as the three promoted teams.

On 3 May 2015, Chelsea won the title with three games to spare after a 1–0 home win over Crystal Palace. [7] It was their first league title since 2010, their fourth Premier League title and their fifth English league title overall. [8] Holders Manchester City eventually finished second, after a short drop to fourth a few weeks before the final match. [9]

Burnley were the first team to be relegated despite beating Hull City 1–0, while Queens Park Rangers suffered the same fate after a 6–0 demolition by Manchester City the next day. [10] [11] Hull City were the third and final team to be relegated after a draw against Manchester United on the final day of the season. [12]

Manchester City's Sergio Agüero won the Golden Boot with 26 goals, with his teammate Joe Hart clinching a record fourth Golden Glove, having kept 14 clean sheets. [13] [14] Eden Hazard and José Mourinho were named as Player and Manager of the Season respectively. [15]


2011–2013: Formation and debut, line-up changes and Dasoni unit Edit

In May 2011, producer Shinsadong Tiger and AB Entertainment scouted several trainees from JYP Entertainment to form a new girl group. Trainee Yuji was the first to join when a JYP girl group failed to debut. Yuji contacted the trainees Hani, Haeryeong, and Jeonghwa to audition for AB, and all three were subsequently accepted into the agency. The group added a fifth member when Shinsadong Tiger discovered LE, an underground rapper and songwriter who performed under the name Elly. Dami, who was already an AB trainee, was the sixth and last member added to the group. [6] Originally named "WT", an acronym for "Who's That", the group changed their name to EXID a few months before their debut. [7] In December 2011, LE was featured in Huh Gak's single "Whenever You Play That Song", which appeared on Korean music charts. [8] [9] EXID was scheduled to debut in January 2012, but their debut was delayed to February when LE sustained a leg injury during rehearsals. [10] On February 3, AB Entertainment announced that EXID would debut with the single "Whoz That Girl". [11] Video teasers featuring the members doing solo performances were subsequently released online.

EXID released their first single "Whoz That Girl" from the digital single album Holla, on February 16, 2012. [12] They made their debut performance on M! Countdown, and then performed on Music Core and Inkigayo. [12] [13] Their debut song "Whoz That Girl" peaked at number 36 on the Gaon Singles Chart and ultimately sold 840,000 digital copies.

In April 2012, AB Entertainment officially announced members Yuji, Dami, and Haeryeong's departure and said in a statement that Yuji and Dami had left the group to focus on their studies, while Haeryeong had left to pursue an acting career. [14] [15] They were replaced by Solji, a former member of vocal duo 2NB, and Hyelin, who was originally considered for EXID's original lineup before she was dropped. [16] [17] With the new members, EXID returned in August 2012 with their second single "I Feel Good" from their first EP Hippity Hop. [18] Hippity Hop debuted at number 13 on the Gaon Albums Chart, selling 1,500 copies. EXID released the digital single "Every Night", in October. The title track is an alternate version of LE's self-written song "Phone Call", which was recorded in their debut EP. [19] "Every Night" debuted at number 43 on the Gaon Singles Chart, selling 105,000 digital copies.

On October 11, EXID released the song "Hey Boy" as part of the soundtrack release for MBC's sitcom The Thousandth Man. The song is the female version of B1A4's song "Hey Girl". Producer Shinsadong Tiger rearranged the song into a "reggae style" to create a different approach from B1A4's original version. [20] It was revealed on November 30 that EXID, along with Big Star and D-Unit, would release a collaboration album, in addition to doing a special year of end show. [21] The concert, entitled "The Bugs Show Vol. 1", was held on December 22 at the V-Hall in the Hongdae area of Seoul. [22] On December 6, EXID won the rookie award at the 20th Korea Culture & Entertainment Awards. [23] [24]

In February 2013, EXID released the single "Up & Down", from the Incarnation of Money soundtrack. It was announced shortly afterwards that members Hani and Solji would form a subunit called "Dasoni". [25] The sub-unit released their debut single "Goodbye" on February 15, with the B-side track "Said So Often". [26]

2014–2015: Breakthrough with "Up & Down" and rise in popularity Edit

In June 2014, EXID was announced to have signed an exclusive contract with Yedang Entertainment, and were preparing a comeback in collaboration with producer Shinsadong Tiger. [27] On August 24, 2014, EXID held their comeback showcase at the Ilchi Art Hall, performing their new song "Up & Down". [28] The song was released on August 27, 2014 and initially charted poorly, failing to make it onto the top 100 of the Gaon Chart though it peaked at number 94 on the domestic chart. [29] However, the song slowly gained popularity in early October 2014 after a fan-recorded video of Hani performing the song went viral on South Korean social networking websites. [3] [30] This led to the song shooting back up record charts, eventually climbing into the top 10 on the real-time charts and topping the Gaon Chart. Because of the success of the fancam, EXID was invited back onto stage to promote despite the fact their promotions ended months prior. [31] [32] [33] Due to this success, EXID returned to several music programs to promote "Up and Down". [34] The song was subsequently nominated for a first place award on Show! Music Core, Inkigayo, and M Countdown, where they took their first music show win since debut. [35] [36] [37] The group won a second award at Music Bank on January 9, 2015, [38] and a third one at Inkigayo on January 11, 2015. [39]

On April 13, 2015, the music video for the title song "Ah Yeah", from EXID's second EP, was released. [ citation needed ] The group won first place with "Ah Yeah" on both April 26 and May 3 episodes of Inkigayo, as well as the April 29 and May 6 episodes of Show Champion. [ citation needed ]

In May 2015, the group made their first American performance at the Korean Music Festival in Los Angeles, California. [ citation needed ] EXID featured in their own season of the MBC Every 1 reality show Showtime in July 2015. [40]

On November 7, 2015, EXID won the MBC Music Star Award at the 2015 Melon Music Awards. [ citation needed ] The music video for "Hot Pink" was released on November 17, 2015. [41]

2016: Chinese debut, Street, and Solji's hiatus Edit

On January 11, 2016, EXID signed with China's entertainment company Banana Project in a bid to extend its popularity outside Korea. [42] This sparked discussions regarding EXID's future activities in South Korea however, CEO of Banana Culture Music Wang Sicong assured fans that the next album his company invested on EXID would be released simultaneously in China and South Korea. [43]

On March 2, EXID's record label Yedang Entertainment changes name to Banana Culture, launching a joint venture company in Seoul with Banana Project. [44] On March 18, EXID held their first Chinese fan meeting, 'EXID's LEGGO Show in Shanghai'. [45]

On June 1, the group released their first studio album titled Street with the title track "L.I.E". [46] Street includes 12 tracks, many of which were written and/or composed by LE. EXID's first studio album also included "Hello", a solo song by lead vocalist Hani and "3%", a solo song sung by main vocalist Solji. The album peaked at number two in Korea on the Gaon Album Chart, while "L.I.E" peaked at number five as a single. [47] On June 8, 2016, EXID won first place with "L.I.E" on Show Champion [48] and soon after, they won first place on both Inkigayo [49] and The Show [50] as well.

On December 20, 2016, EXID released their first Chinese single, "Cream" on QQ Music and YinYueTai-which peaked at number six on the Billboard China V Chart. [51] However, a day later, Banana Culture announced that Solji had been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and that she would halt all her activities for the awards season of 2016–17, while the remaining four members continue on. [52]

2017: Promotions as four and EXID Asia Tour 2017 Edit

On January 10, 2017, the group released their second Chinese single "Up & Down" (Chinese: 上下 pinyin: Shàngxià ). [53] [54] On the same day of its release, an edited version music video for "Up & Down (Chinese Ver.)" [55] was uploaded to YouTube and the original was removed. Some Chinese fans found EXID's dancing in the 'Forbidden City' to be inappropriate whilst some thought that it was completely normal. [56]

On March 17, the four members of EXID excluding Solji performed at the Mexico City Arena as part of the KCON music festival in Mexico, with Hani covering Mexican duo Jesse & Joy's "Ecos De Amor".

Due to Solji's remaining health issues, the group's comeback was delayed until April. Their agency announced in March that EXID would return as a four-piece while Solji recovered from her hyperthyroidism. [57] On April 10, EXID officially released their third EP Eclipse and their title song "Night Rather Than Day". [58] Eclipse debuted at number four on the Billboard World Albums chart, becoming the group's best-charting – and first top-five – album on the chart to date. [59] On April 25, 2017, EXID won first place on The Show with "Night Rather Than Day". This was followed by their second win with this song on Show Champion the following day and their third win on The Show on May 2, 2017. [60]

On May 12, Banana Culture Entertainment has announced that EXID would embark on a promotional Asian tour during the summer. Titled ‘EXID Asia Tour 2017’, the group visited a handful of countries for the tour, starting in Hong Kong and Singapore. They originally planned to visited Taiwan on July 30, before performing a homecoming concert in Seoul on August 12 however, due to safety concerns over the threat of Typhoon Nesat, the Taiwanese show was postponed to August 26. [61] Solji gave a surprise appearance at the encore of the Seoul concert before resuming her treatment neither the audience nor the rest of the group knew of her visit. [62] The Asian tour wrapped with their Taipei concert on August 26. [63]

EXID's fourth mini album Full Moon was released on November 7, 2017. This marks the return of member Solji, who was absent from the group since 2016. This time, Solji only participated in the recording process but was absent from the promotions and the title track's music video. [64] On November 21, 2017, EXID won first place on The Show with "DDD". [65]

From December 2017 onwards, EXID, through their social media platforms, shared photo teasers for a project named re:flower, whose songs would be remasters and remakes of past their songs that weren't title songs. [66]

2018: Japanese debut and Solji's return Edit

EXID returned with a single album Lady on April 2, 2018, only promoting as four, however, due to Solji still recovering from surgery. [67] [68] [69] The lead track for the album is entitled "내일해 (Lady)". [70] On April 10, 2018, EXID won first place on The Show with "Lady". [71]

On 11 May, Banana Culture announced EXID's launching of their Japanese official website, which included a Japanese fan club. [72] They also announced a debut showcase at Tokyo to be held on June 27. [73] During the showcase, EXID announced their release of the Japanese version of "Up & Down" on August 22, [74] as well as their first Japanese tour to be held between August 23 and 25, with Solji confirming that she will have returned by then. [75]

On July 22 and 29, Solji returned as a contestant in episode 163-164 of MBC's singing competition program King of Mask Singer as 'Dongmakgol Girl' and emerged victorious, [76] [77] being crowned the 82nd generation of 'Mask King'. [78] On September 6, Banana Culture released a statement, announcing that Solji will join EXID on September 7 to attend the 2018 Hallyu Pop Festival in Singapore as her first official schedule. [79] This marked the formal return of Solji into EXID, of which she will be joining in all of their future group promotions. Solji appeared with the rest of the group members on stage on August 10, on day 2 of HallyuPopFest 2018, in which she performed 5 of their title tracks with the group. [80] Solji continued to successfully defend herself over all contestants in the next 8 episodes since her initial victory in King of Mask Singer, [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] before ending her streak as the winner of 82nd to 86th generation on October 21. [89] After her defeat, she revealed her identity, and explained her choice of return through the show as it was where she rose to fame. [90]

To further their promotions since their debut in Japan, the music video for the Japanese version of "Up & Down" was released early on August 10 before the launch of the Japanese debut album, [91] which debuted at number 15 on the Daily chart of Oricon. [92]

On November 11, EXID made a full-member comeback with the single album I Love You, while releasing the music video with the same title. [93] "I Love You" entered Billboard's World Digital Song Sales chart at number 5, which was by far their highest achievement in the chart. [94]

2019–present: Announcement of group hiatus and Japanese activities Edit

On December 31, 2018, EXID performed at Taipei New Year's Eve Countdown Party in Taipei, Taiwan, and stayed there through the countdown to 2019. [95] [96]

In February 2019, EXID held their second Japanese live tour, titled "2019 EXID Valentine Japan Live Tour". [97] [98] Their debut Japanese album, Trouble, was released on April 3, 2019. [99] Trouble debuted and peaked at number 12 on the Oricon Albums Chart and at number 23 on Billboard Japan ' s Hot Albums. [100] [101] It also peaked at number 10 on Billboard Japan ' s Top Albums Sales, with 4,831 physical copies sold in its first week. [102]

In early May 2019, members Hani and Jeonghwa decided to not renew their contracts with Banana Culture. [103] Shortly after, it was announced that the group will release an extended play on May 15, 2019. It was agreed that all the members would participate in promotion activities and after the promotions concluded, the group would enter an indefinite hiatus so each member could focus on individual activities. [104] EXID released their fifth EP "We" alongside the title track "Me & You" on May 15, 2019. The EP debuted at 8 on the US World Albums Chart, becoming their fourth top 10 entry on the chart. [105] It sold 24,423 physical copies in South Korea that month. [106] Banana Culture later clarified that the group would continue activities as five in Japan for another year, with a Japanese tour entitled "2019 EXID Summer Live Tour" beginning in August. [107]

EXID released a Japanese single entitled "Bad Girl For You" on December 25, 2019. [108]

On January 15, 2020, Hyelin also left Banana Culture, [109] followed by Solji on February 5, [110] and finally LE on March 25. [111]

On August 19, EXID released their second Japanese album, B.L.E.S.S.E.D. [112]

    (솔지) – Leader, main vocal [113] (엘리) – Main rapper [113] (하니) – Lead vocal, lead dancer [113] (혜린) – Lead vocal [113] (정화) – Main dancer, sub-vocal, lead rapper [113]

Former members Edit

Reality shows Edit

Dramas Edit

Since debuting in 2012, EXID has won four various awards and 22 music program awards. On January 8, 2015, the group won their first number-one win on M! Countdown due to the success of their digital single "Up & Down," followed by wins on Music Bank, The Music Trend and The Show.

Social Security

A: The Social Security Act was signed by FDR on 8/14/35. Taxes were collected for the first time in January 1937 and the first one-time, lump-sum payments were made that same month. Regular ongoing monthly benefits started in January 1940.

Q2: What is the origin of the term "Social Security?"

A: The term was first used in the U.S. by Abraham Epstein in connection with his group, the American Association for Social Security. Originally, the Social Security Act of 1935 was named the Economic Security Act, but this title was changed during Congressional consideration of the bill. (The full story has been recounted by Professor Edwin Witte who was present at the event.)

Q3: When did Medicare start?

A: Medicare was passed into law on July 30, 1965 but beneficiaries were first able to sign-up for the program on July 1, 1966.

Q4: Is it true that Social Security was originally just a retirement program?

A: Yes. Under the 1935 law, what we now think of as Social Security only paid retirement benefits to the primary worker. A 1939 change in the law added survivors benefits and benefits for the retiree's spouse and children. In 1956 disability benefits were added.

Keep in mind, however, that the Social Security Act itself was much broader than just the program which today we commonly describe as "Social Security." The original 1935 law contained the first national unemployment compensation program, aid to the states for various health and welfare programs, and the Aid to Dependent Children program. (Full text of the 1935 law.)

Q5: Is it true that members of Congress do not have to pay into Social Security?

A: No, it is not true. All members of Congress, the President and Vice President, Federal judges, and most political appointees, were covered under the Social Security program starting in January 1984. They pay into the system just like everyone else. Thus all members of Congress, no matter how long they have been in office, have been paying into the Social Security system since January 1984.

(Prior to this time, most Federal government workers and officials were participants in the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) which came into being in 1920--15 years before the Social Security system was formed. For this reason, historically, Federal employees were not participants in the Social Security system.)

Employees of the three branches of the federal government, were also covered starting in January 1984, under the 1983 law--but with some special transition rules.

1) Executive and judicial branch employees hired before January 1, 1984 were given a one-time irrevocable choice of whether to switch to Social Security or stay under the old CSRS. (Rehired employees--other than rehired annuitants--are treated like new employees if their break-in-service was more than a year.)

2) Employees of the legislative branch who were not participating in the CSRS system were mandatorily covered, regardless of when their service began. Those who were in the CSRS system were given the same one-time choice as employees in the executive and judicial branches.

3) All federal employees hired on or after January 1, 1984 are mandatorily covered under Social Security--the CSRS system is not an option for them.

So there are still some Federal employees, those first hired prior to January 1984, who are not participants in the Social Security system. All other Federal government employees participate in Social Security like everyone else.

This change was part of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security. You can find a summary of the 1983 amendments elsewhere on this site.

Q6: Is is true that the age of 65 was chosen as the retirement age for Social Security because the Germans used 65 in their system, and the Germans used age 65 because their Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was 65 at the time they developed their system?

A: No, it is not true. Generally, age 65 was chosen to conform to contemporary practice during the 1930s. (See more detailed explanation.)

Q7: Is it true that life expectancy was less than 65 back in 1935, so the Social Security program was designed in such a way that people would not live long enough to collect benefits?

A: Not really. Life expectancy at birth was less than 65, but this is a misleading measure. A more appropriate measure is life expectancy after attainment of adulthood, which shows that most Americans could expect to live to age 65 once they survived childhood. (See more detailed explanation.)

Q8: When did COLAs (cost-of-living allowances) start?

A: COLAs were first paid in 1975 as a result of a 1972 law. Prior to this, benefits were increased irregularly by special acts of Congress.

Q9: What information is available from Social Security records to help in genealogical research?

A: You might want to start by checking out the Social Security Death Index which is available online from a variety of commercial services (usually the search is free). The Death Index contains a listing of persons who had a Social Security number, who are deceased, and whose death was reported to the Social Security Administration. (The information in the Death Index for people who died prior to 1962 is sketchy since SSA's death information was not automated before that date. Death information for persons who died before 1962 is generally only in the Death Index if the death was actually reported to SSA after 1962, even though the death occurred prior to that year.)

If you find a person in the Death Index you will learn the date of birth and Social Security Number for that person. (The Social Security Death Index is not published by SSA for public use, but is made available by commercial entities using information from SSA records. We do not offer support of these commercial products nor can we answer questions about the material in the Death Index.)

Other records potentially available from SSA include the Application for a Social Security Number (form SS-5). To obtain any information from SSA you will need to file a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request.

Q10: Does Social Security have any lists of the most common names in use in the U.S.?

A: Yes, based on the applications for Social Security cards, SSA's Office of the Actuary has done a series of special studies of the most common names.

Q11: Where do I get more information about the Social Security program as it exists today?

Q12: Who was the first person to get Social Security benefits?

A: A fellow named Ernest Ackerman got a payment for 17 cents in January 1937. This was a one-time, lump-sum pay-out--which was the only form of benefits paid during the start-up period January 1937 through December 1939.

Q13: If Ernest Ackerman only received a single lump-sum payment, who was the first person to received ongoing monthly benefits?

A: A woman named Ida May Fuller , from Ludlow, Vermont was the first recipient of monthly Social Security benefits.

Q14: How many people, annually, have received Social Security payments?

A: This history is available as a detailed table. (Payment history table)

Q15: What is the "notch"?

A: In 1972 a technical error was introduced in the law which resulted in beneficiaries getting a double adjustment for inflation. In 1977 Congress acted to correct the error. Instead of making the correction immediate, they phased it in over a five year period (this is the notch period). This phase-in period was defined as affecting those people born in 1917-1921. Individuals in the notch generally receive higher benefits than those born after the notch, although they receive lower benefits than those born in the period prior to the notch when the error was in effect.

Q16: Where can I find the history of the tax rates over the years and the amount of earnings subject to Social Security taxes?

A: The history of the tax rates is available as an Adobe PDF file. (Tax rate table). There is also a table showing the maximum amount of Social Security taxes that could have been paid since the program began.

There are also tables showing the minimum and maximum Social Security benefit for a retired worker who retires at age 62 and one who retires at age 65.

Also, there is a table showing the number of workers paying into Social Security each year. (Covered workers table) And also a table showing the ratio of covered workers to beneficiaries. (Ratio table)

Q17: What does FICA mean and why are Social Security taxes called FICA contributions?

A: Social Security payroll taxes are collected under authority of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). The payroll taxes are sometimes even called "FICA taxes." In the original 1935 law the benefit provisions were in Title II of the Act and the taxing provisions were in a separate title, Title VIII. As part of the 1939 Amendments, the Title VIII taxing provisions were taken out of the Social Security Act and placed in the Internal Revenue Code. Since it wouldn't make any sense to call this new section of the Internal Revenue Code "Title VIII," it was renamed the "Federal Insurance Contributions Act." So FICA is nothing more than the tax provisions of the Social Security Act, as they appear in the Internal Revenue Code.

Q18: Is there any significance to the numbers assigned in the Social Security Number?

A: Yes. Originally, the first three digits are assigned by the geographical region in which the person was residing at the time he/she obtained a number. Generally, numbers were assigned beginning in the northeast and moving westward. So people on the east coast have the lowest numbers and those on the west coast have the highest numbers. The remaining six digits in the number are more or less randomly assigned and were organized to facilitate the early manual bookkeeping operations associated with the creation of Social Security in the 1930s.

Beginning on June 25, 2011, the SSA implemented a new assignment methodology for Social Security Numbers. The project is a forward looking initiative of the Social Security Administration (SSA) to help protect the integrity of the SSN by establishing a new randomized assignment methodology. SSN Randomization will also extend the longevity of the nine-digit SSN nationwide.

For more information on the randomization of Social Security Numbers, please visit this website:

Q19: How many Social Security numbers have been issued since the program started?

A: Social Security numbers were first issued in November 1936. To date, 453.7 million different numbers have been issued.

Q20: Are Social Security numbers reused after a person dies?

A: No. We do not reassign a Social Security number (SSN) after the number holder's death. Even though we have issued over 453 million SSNs so far, and we assign about 5 and one-half million new numbers a year, the current numbering system will provide us with enough new numbers for several generations into the future with no changes in the numbering system.

Q21: When did Social Security cards bear the legend "NOT FOR IDENTIFICATION"?

A: The first Social Security cards were issued starting in 1936, they did not have this legend. Beginning with the sixth design version of the card, issued starting in 1946, SSA added a legend to the bottom of the card reading "FOR SOCIAL SECURITY PURPOSES -- NOT FOR IDENTIFICATION." This legend was removed as part of the design changes for the 18th version of the card, issued beginning in 1972. The legend has not been on any new cards issued since 1972.

Q22: Does the Social Security Number contain a code indicating the racial group to which the cardholder belongs?

A: No. This is a myth. The Social Security Number does contain a segment (the two middle numbers) known as "the group number." But this refers only to the numerical groups 01-99. It has nothing to do with race. (See more detailed explanation.)Financing

Q23: Has Social Security ever been financed by general tax revenues?

A: Not to any significant extent. (See detailed explanation.)

Q24: How much has Social Security paid out since it started?

A: From 1937 (when the first payments were made) through 2009 the Social Security program has expended $11.3 trillion.

Q25: How much has Social Security taken in taxes and other income since it started?

A: From 1937 (when taxes were first collected) through 2009 the Social Security program has received $13.8 trillion in income.

Q26: Has Social Security always taken in more money each year than it needed to pay benefits?

A: No. So far there have been 11 years in which the Social Security program did not take enough in FICA taxes to pay the current year's benefits. During these years, Trust Fund bonds in the amount of about $24 billion made up the difference. (See detailed Table.)

Q27: Do the Social Security Trust Funds earn interest?

A: Yes they do. By law, the assets of the Social Security program must be invested in securities guaranteed as to both principal and interest. The Trust Funds hold a mix of short-term and long-term government bonds. The Trust Funds can hold both regular Treasury securities and "special obligation" securities issued only to federal trust funds. In practice, most of the securities in the Social Security Trust Funds are of the "special obligation" type. (See additional explanation from SSA's Office of the Actuary.)

The Trust Funds earn interest which is set at the average market yield on long-term Treasury securities. Interest earnings on the invested assets of the combined OASI and DI Trust Funds were $55.5 billion in calendar year 1999. This represented an effective annual interest rate of 6.9 percent.

The Trust Funds have earned interest in every year since the program began. More detailed information on the Trust Fund investments can be found in the Annual Report of the Social Security Trustees and on the Actuary's webpages concerning the Investment Transactions and Investment Holdings of the Trust Funds.

Q28: Did President Franklin Roosevelt make a set of promises about Social Security, which have now been violated?

A: This question generally refers to a set of misinformation that is propagated over the Internet (usually via email) from time to time. (See a detailed explanation here.)

Q29: I have seen a set of questions and answers on the Internet concerning who started the taxing of Social Security benefits, and questions like that. Are the answers given correct?

Daily Readings

Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said:
“Leaders of the people and elders:
If we are being examined today
about a good deed done to a cripple,
namely, by what means he was saved,
then all of you and all the people of Israel should know
that it was in the name of Jesus Christ the Nazorean
whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead
in his name this man stands before you healed.
He is the stone rejected by you, the builders,
which has become the cornerstone.

There is no salvation through anyone else,
nor is there any other name under heaven
given to the human race by which we are to be saved.”

Responsorial Psalm

R. (22) The stone rejected by the builders has become the cornerstone.
R. Alleluia.
Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good,
for his mercy endures forever.
It is better to take refuge in the LORD
than to trust in man.
It is better to take refuge in the LORD
than to trust in princes.
R. The stone rejected by the builders has become the cornerstone.
R. Alleluia.
I will give thanks to you, for you have answered me
and have been my savior.
The stone which the builders rejected
has become the cornerstone.
By the LORD has this been done
it is wonderful in our eyes.
R. The stone rejected by the builders has become the cornerstone.
R. Alleluia.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD
we bless you from the house of the LORD.
I will give thanks to you, for you have answered me
and have been my savior.
Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good
for his kindness endures forever.
R. The stone rejected by the builders has become the cornerstone.
R. Alleluia.

Search Tips

For Lections search, a drop down menu will show all the available scripture citations as soon as you start to type.

For Texts search, type in any keywords that come to mind, and the search engine will return results ranked by relevancy.

You can also use some special keystrokes to refine your search. They include:

Sixth Sunday after the Epiphany

Year A

February 12, 2023

Deuteronomy 30:15-20
30:15 See, I have set before you today life and prosperity, death and adversity.

30:16 If you obey the commandments of the LORD your God that I am commanding you today, by loving the LORD your God, walking in his ways, and observing his commandments, decrees, and ordinances, then you shall live and become numerous, and the LORD your God will bless you in the land that you are entering to possess.

30:17 But if your heart turns away and you do not hear, but are led astray to bow down to other gods and serve them,

30:18 I declare to you today that you shall perish you shall not live long in the land that you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess.

30:19 I call heaven and earth to witness against you today that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Choose life so that you and your descendants may live,

30:20 loving the LORD your God, obeying him, and holding fast to him for that means life to you and length of days, so that you may live in the land that the LORD swore to give to your ancestors, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.

Sirach 15:15-20
15:15 If you choose, you can keep the commandments, and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice.

15:16 He has placed before you fire and water stretch out your hand for whichever you choose.

15:17 Before each person are life and death, and whichever one chooses will be given.

15:18 For great is the wisdom of the Lord he is mighty in power and sees everything

15:19 his eyes are on those who fear him, and he knows every human action.

15:20 He has not commanded anyone to be wicked, and he has not given anyone permission to sin.

Psalm 119:1-8
119:1 Happy are those whose way is blameless, who walk in the law of the LORD.

119:2 Happy are those who keep his decrees, who seek him with their whole heart,

119:3 who also do no wrong, but walk in his ways.

119:4 You have commanded your precepts to be kept diligently.

119:5 O that my ways may be steadfast in keeping your statutes!

119:6 Then I shall not be put to shame, having my eyes fixed on all your commandments.

119:7 I will praise you with an upright heart, when I learn your righteous ordinances.

119:8 I will observe your statutes do not utterly forsake me.

1 Corinthians 3:1-9
3:1 And so, brothers and sisters, I could not speak to you as spiritual people, but rather as people of the flesh, as infants in Christ.

3:2 I fed you with milk, not solid food, for you were not ready for solid food. Even now you are still not ready,

3:3 for you are still of the flesh. For as long as there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not of the flesh, and behaving according to human inclinations?

3:4 For when one says, "I belong to Paul," and another, "I belong to Apollos," are you not merely human?

3:5 What then is Apollos? What is Paul? Servants through whom you came to believe, as the Lord assigned to each.

3:6 I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth.

3:7 So neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth.

3:8 The one who plants and the one who waters have a common purpose, and each will receive wages according to the labor of each.

3:9 For we are God's servants, working together you are God's field, God's building.

Matthew 5:21-37
5:21 "You have heard that it was said to those of ancient times, 'You shall not murder' and 'whoever murders shall be liable to judgment.'

5:22 But I say to you that if you are angry with a brother or sister, you will be liable to judgment and if you insult a brother or sister, you will be liable to the council and if you say, 'You fool,' you will be liable to the hell of fire.

5:23 So when you are offering your gift at the altar, if you remember that your brother or sister has something against you,

5:24 leave your gift there before the altar and go first be reconciled to your brother or sister, and then come and offer your gift.

5:25 Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are on the way to court with him, or your accuser may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison.

5:26 Truly I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.

5:27 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.'

5:28 But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

5:29 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.

5:30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to go into hell.

5:31 "It was also said, 'Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.'

5:32 But I say to you that anyone who divorces his wife, except on the ground of unchastity, causes her to commit adultery and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.

5:33 "Again, you have heard that it was said to those of ancient times, 'You shall not swear falsely, but carry out the vows you have made to the Lord.'

5:34 But I say to you, Do not swear at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God,

5:35 or by the earth, for it is his footstool, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.

5:36 And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black.

5:37 Let your word be 'Yes, Yes' or 'No, No' anything more than this comes from the evil one.

Scripture texts are from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Lections are from the Revised Common Lectionary Daily Readings. See the Terms of Use for copyright details.

The online Revised Common Lectionary is a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, a division of the Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries.

How Smartphones are Changing Consumers’ Daily Routines Around the Globe

Smartphones are beginning to transform how we engage in our everyday lives. Only a few years ago, they were still the minority of mobile phones around the globe, but already they’re beginning to transform how we engage in our everyday lives. Today, they have a much more dominant presence. Not only is smartphone penetration growing, with over two-thirds (67%) of mobile subscribers in the U.S. owning smartphones in Q4 2013, but consumer usage of phones is rapidly shifting toward increased screen time with entertainment and social media.

In anticipation of Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, we took a birds-eye-view snapshot of the mobile landscape using Nielsen’s proprietary opt-in panel of on-device meters, which measure consumer behavior using smartphones, from markets including the U.S., U.K., Italy, Japan, and around the globe.

But it’s not just smartphone penetration that’s growing. Consumers are also spending more time using them, as time spent using smartphones now exceeds Web usage on computers in the U.S., U.K. and Italy. Americans spent 34 hours using smartphone apps and on the mobile Web in December 2013, up six hours from December 2012. Britons spent a whopping 41 hours using their smartphones during December 2013. And Italians used their smartphones about twice as long (37 hours) as they spent on the Web via their PCs (18 hours) in December.

Average Time Spent Per Person by Platform in December 2013

U.S. U.K. Italy
Monthly TV time spent 185 hours 129 hours, 54 minutes 143 hours, 20 minutes
Monthly online time spent 26 hours, 58 minutes 29 hours, 14 minutes 18 hours, 7 minutes
Monthly mobile time spent 34 hours, 21 minutes 41 hours, 42 minutes 37 hours, 12 minutes
Source: Nielsen

Not only are consumers spending more time using their phones, they can’t seem to put them down, increasingly accessing their phones multiple times a day. U.K. smartphone users reached for their handsets an average of nine times a day during December, nearly twice as often as they did at the start of 2013 (5.5 times per day). Across the pond in the U.S., frequency of smartphone owners accessing apps and mobile sites increased from less than five sessions per day in December 2012 to an average of at least seven daily sessions using their smartphones at the end of 2013. So what activities are keeping consumers’ fingers glued to their smartphone screens? Apps make up the lion’s share of time spent using smartphones, led by the growth in time spent using apps for entertainment and media. In fact, the majority of Americans’ time with apps is spent playing games (18%), accessing entertainment (15%), or using social media (29%). In Japan, nearly half of time spent on smartphones is split between those same activities, and this global trend extends to the U.K. where more than one in four minutes spent (28%) using smartphones is using social networking apps.

Share of Time Spent using Smartphone Apps by Category

U.S. U.K. Japan
Communications 12% 9% 16%
Shopping/Commerce 2% 5% 6%
News/Info 2% 5% 5%
Productivity/Function 11% 7% 6%
Entertainment 6% 15% 9%
Games 9% 18% 16%
Social 28% 29% 24%
Others 29% 12% 17%
Source: Nielsen

To be sure, traditional phone functions are still important, with smartphone time split between text messages (9% of total smartphone time), the phone dialer (3%), and address books (2%) among U.S. Android users. In Italy and Japan usage of traditional phone functions make up even smaller shares of Android user’s time, as users in Japan spend more time using instant messenger apps (7% total smartphone time) than text messaging (

Regardless of which market consumers use their mobile devices, more smartphones are entering the hands of consumers every day, and the growth in smartphone usage is driven by consumer’s constant connection to entertainment and media apps.

Look for Nielsen at Mobile World Congress 2014 where our mobile experts will present insights on global consumers’ interaction with mobile retail and mobile video.

Oil plunges 24% for worst day since 1991, hits multi-year low after OPEC deal failure sparks price war

Oil prices plunged to multi-year lows on Monday as tensions between Russia and Saudi Arabia escalate, sparking fears on the Street that an all-out price war is imminent.

The sell-off in crude began last week when OPEC failed to strike a deal with its allies, led by Russia, about oil production cuts. That, in turn, caused Saudi Arabia to slash its oil prices as it reportedly looks to ramp up production.

U.S. West Texas Intermediate crude and international benchmark Brent crude on Monday posted their worst day since 1991.

WTI plunged 24.59%, or $10.15, to settle at $31.13 per barrel. It was WTI's second worst day on record. International benchmark Brent crude slid $10.91, or 24.1%, to settle at $34.36 per barrel.

Earlier in the session each contract fell more than 30%. WTI dropped to $30 while Brent traded as low as $31.02, both of which were the lowest levels since Feb. 2016.

"This has turned into a scorched Earth approach by Saudi Arabia, in particular, to deal with the problem of chronic overproduction," Again Capital's John Kilduff said. "The Saudis are the lowest cost producer by far. There is a reckoning ahead for all other producers, especially those companies operating in the U.S shale patch."

On Saturday, Saudi Arabia announced massive discounts to its official selling prices for April, and the nation is reportedly preparing to increase its production above the 10 million barrel per day mark, according to a Reuters report. The kingdom currently pumps 9.7 million barrels per day, but has the capacity to ramp up to 12.5 million barrels per day.

"We believe the OPEC and Russia oil price war unequivocally started this weekend when Saudi Arabia aggressively cut the relative price at which it sells its crude by the most in at least 20 years," Goldman Sachs analyst Damien Courvalin said in a note to clients Sunday. "The prognosis for the oil market is even more dire than in November 2014, when such a price war last started, as it comes to a head with the significant collapse in oil demand due to the coronavirus," the firm added.

Goldman cut its second and third quarter Brent forecast to $30 per barrel, and said that prices could dip into the $20s.

Saudi Arabia's price cut followed a breakdown of talks in Vienna last week. On Thursday, OPEC recommended additional production cuts of 1.5 million barrels per day starting in April and extending until the end of the year. But OPEC ally Russia rejected the additional cuts when the 13-member cartel and its allies, known as OPEC+, met on Friday.

The meeting also concluded with no directive about the production cuts that are currently in place but set to expire at the end of the month. This effectively means that nations will soon have free rein over how much they pump.

"As from 1 April we are starting to work without minding the quotas or reductions which were in place earlier," Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak told reporters Friday at the OPEC+ meeting in Vienna, adding, "but this does not mean that each country would not monitor and analyze market developments."

Oil prices have already moved sharply lower this year as the coronavirus outbreak has led to softer demand for crude. A potential supply glut could pressure prices further.

"Both events – coronavirus and OPEC+ falling apart were not expected or priced into the market a month ago," said Rebecca Babin, senior equity trader for CIBC Private Wealth Management. She said the key things to watch going forward are whether or not Saudi Arabia and Russia reach a "Hail Mary" deal, and if not, how quickly U.S. supply is shut in to support prices.

"There is still significant uncertainty, but the commodity market is not waiting around to find out if miracles can happen," she added.

The XLE, which tracks the energy sector, and the XOP, which tracks oil and gas companies, fell 19% and 27%, respectively, on Monday.

The unfolding of events is reminiscent of 2014 when Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the U.S. competed for market share in the oil industry. As production escalated, prices plummeted. Some see prices heading back to those lows.

″$20 oil in 2020 is coming," Ali Khedery, formerly Exxon's senior Middle East advisor and now CEO of U.S.-based strategy firm Dragoman Ventures, wrote Sunday on Twitter. "Huge geopolitical implications. Timely stimulus for net consumers. Catastrophic for failed/failing petro-kleptocracies Iraq, Iran, etc - may prove existential 1-2 punch when paired with COVID19."

But others, including Eurasia Group, believe that Saudi Arabia and Russia will eventually come to an agreement.

"The most likely outcome of the failure of the Vienna talks is a limited oil price war before the two sides agree on a new deal," analysts led by Ayham Kamel said in a note to clients Sunday. The firm puts the chances of an eventual agreement at 60%.

Vital Knowledge founder Adam Crisafulli said Sunday that oil "has become a bigger problem for markets than the coronavirus," but also said that he does not foresee prices falling to the Jan. 2016 lows.

"Saudi Arabia can't tolerate an oil depression – the country's fiscal breakeven oil prices remain very high, Saudi Aramco is now a public company, and MBS's grip on power isn't yet absolute. As a result, the [government] won't be so cavalier in sending oil back into the $30s (or even lower)," he said in a note to clients Sunday.


Times Square Monthly Pedestrian Count Reports are located at the bottom of the page.

It should be no surprise that Times Square typically has some of the heaviest foot traffic in all of New York City. However, like the rest of the City, Times Square saw record lows in foot traffic in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Times Square automated counting system - phased in between August 2011 and September 2012 - provides 24/7 data on the number of pedestrians who enter and pass through specific counting zones of the Times Square Bowtie. We have 18 cameras located on six different buildings, monitoring 35 unique locations in the area. This data allows us to estimate that:

  • In a typical year, nearly 360,000 pedestrians enter the heart of Times Square each day. In 2020, roughly 125,000 pedestrians entered Times Square each day.
  • On the busiest days, Times Square has pedestrian counts as high as 450,000. Since the height of the pandemic in March, 2020 peaks reached approximately 190,000.
  • Times Square stays busy late, with over 85,000 pedestrians entering the "Bowtie" between 7pm and 1am.

The data points listed above represent averages completed in December of 2019 and 2020. The chart below compares the average daily number of visitors to Times Square every month.

In addition to monthly counts, you can use the chart below to explore how the number of visitors to Times Square changes depending on the day of the week. Use the directional buttons on the chart below to see how the pedestrian count in Times Square rises and falls throughout the year.

Browse our monthly pedestrian maps showing the total counts of trends captured by our new system, below:

Planet Facts

1. The Earth is around 4.6 billion years old according to scientists.

2. The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.

3. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (.93%),
and carbon dioxide (0.03%).

4. Earth’s atmosphere divided in 5 sections from the surface: Troposphere (0-13 km), Ozone Layer (13-25 km), Stratosphere (25-50 km), Mesosphere (50-75 km), and Thermosphere (75-150 km)

5. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the Solar System.

6. The Diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km (7,926 miles)

7. The earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km per second (66,660 mi/hr)

8. Earth has only one satellite, the Moon. The Moon is the second brightest object in the sky from Earth.

9. Earth has an average surface temperature of 13°C (55.4°F).

10. The greenhouse effect raises Earth’s temperature 35°C(95°F).

11. Earth’s distance from the Sun – Min. 146 million km (91million miles) Max. 152 million km (94.5 million miles).

12. Earth is composed of: iron (32%), oxygen (30%), silicon (15%), magnesium (14%), sulfur (3%), nickel (2%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) and the remainder made up of other elements.

13. Earths main tectonic plates: African plate, Antarctic plate, Indo-Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate, North American Plate, South American Plate, and the Pacific Plate.

14. Earth has several layers with unique chemical and seismic properties: Crust (0-40 km), upper mantle (40-400 km), transition region (400-650 km), lower mantle (650-2700 km), D layer (2700-2890 km), outer core (2890-5150 km), and the inner core (5150-6378 km) from the surface.

15. The Earth is not perfectly round, rather it is an oblate spheroid. This is due to the planet’s equatorial bulge.

16. The magnetic poles of the Earth gradually flip flop about every 200,000 to 300,000 years.

17. The deepest spot on Earth is under the ocean in the Mariana Trench at 35,813 feet below sea level.

18. Oceans cover about 70% of the Earth’s surface, much of which has never been explored.

19. Due to Earth’s distance from the Sun, it takes about 8 minutes and 19 seconds for light to reach the planet from the Sun.

February Units, Lesson Plans & Activities

We have organized all of our February bulletin boards, lesson plans, activities, thematic units, and resources.

  • February Events Calendar
    Our interactive monthly calendar that includes the various February holidays and special events. Find links to great resources.
  • February Bulletin Boards
    Displays for your classroom related to the various themes and events of February. Many of our bulletin board resources overlay, so you can also find additional ideas on our main bulletin board page.
  • February Writing Prompts
    A unique and historically significant writing prompt for every day of the month.
  • Black History Month
    An entire unit devoted to this month. Find web sites, lessons, activities, and books.
    Bring the "Big Game" to life in your classroom with fun and educational ideas.
    (Depending on the year, this event may occur in January.)
    What is that Punxsutawney Phil up to?
    Find resources such as calendars, puppets, food, and more.
    (Depending on the year, this event may occur in January.)
    Lessons, activities, and resources to help speak the language of love.
    Learn about Abraham Lincoln and George Washington, as well as the office of President.
  • Winter
    Ideas, activities and lessons that are geared for this cold, snowy season.
  • 100th Day Celebration
    Great activities and resource to make your 100th day a great success.
  • Winter Olympics
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
  • Chocolate
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
  • Ice & Snow Fun
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
    A Teacher's Corner thematic unit that includes lessons, activities, web resources, and books.
    A completely customizable printable calendar. Simply click on days and edit events, colors, backgrounds and fonts.

Subscription Features include:

  • All Banner Ads removed from the entire website
    Note: Subscriptions do NOT allow citation removal from puzzles and worksheets created on our site.
  • More options available for customizing puzzles!
    • More stock images to choose from!
    • More images allowed per puzzle!
    • Many more available fonts! (over 125 fonts!)
    • Use ANY font installed on your computer
    • 10 word list save slots - and access your saved lists from anywhere!
    • More word/clues for crosswords (up to 50)
    • More word/clues for match-ups (up to 100)
    • More word/clues for fill-in-the-blank (up to 100)
    • More word/clues for word scrambles (up to 100)
    • More options for Sudoku puzzles
    • No wait delays imposed for saving puzzles to an image or PDF
    • 'Fake Bank' on our Fill-in-the-Blank worksheets
    • More features coming soon

    NOTE:ALL Packages contain the same features, longer subscriptions get better price breaks

    SAFE: All subscriptions can be paid via Paypal or Stripe, so your sensitive banking information is never seen nor stored by our website.

    Click on Facebook and LIKE US to get up-to-date information about the release of our subscriptions and get valuable coupon codes!

    Watch the video: Kashmir The Story. Full Documentary On The History u0026 Timelines Of Kashmir Valley (January 2022).